Using Pester with dbatools Test-DbaLastBackup

In previous posts I have shown how to use Test-DbaLastBackup from dbatools and how you can make use of the results. Today we will look at using  Pester with the results

Pester provides a framework for running unit tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands from within PowerShell. Pester consists of a simple set of functions that expose a testing domain-specific language (DSL) for isolating, running, evaluating and reporting the results of PowerShell commands.

we shall use it to validate our results. First we need to gather our results as we have seen before, In this example I have set the MaxMb to 5 so change that if you are playing along

Import-Module dbatools
$TestServer = 'SQL2016N1'
$Server = 'SQL2016N2'
$servers = 'SQL2016N1','SQL2016N2'
$Results = $servers.ForEach{Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer $_ -Destination $TestServer -MaxMB 5}
Then we need to write some Pester Tests. I tried to use Test Cases which are the correct method to iterate through collections as Mike Robbins shows here but Pester does not accept the type of object that is returned from this command for that. It’s ok though, because Pester is just PowerShell we can use a foreach loop.
In this scenario, we are testing for failures rather than when the backup test has skipped due to the file path not being a network share or the size being greater than our max size, so our checks are using the Should Not assertion. I have also added a test for the time the backup was taken.
Describe "Last Backup Test results - NOTE THIS IGNORES Skipped restores,DBCC and BackupFiles" {
foreach($result in $results)
{
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) File Should Exist" {
$Result.FileExists| Should Not Be 'False'
}
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) Restore should be Success" {
$Result.RestoreResult| Should Not Be 'False'
}
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) DBCC should be Success" {
$Result.DBCCResult| Should Not Be 'False'
}
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) Backup Should be less than a week old" {
$Result.BackupTaken| Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddDays(-7)
}
}
If we run that we get an output like this. Green is Good Red is Bad 🙂
01 - pester script.PNG
We can save the script to a file and use the Invoke-Pester to call it like this.
Invoke-Pester C:\temp\BackupPester.ps1
(Some Restore Frames removed for brevity)
02 -invoke pester.gif
invoke-Pester can output results to a file so we can output to XML which can be consumed by many things
$Date = Get-Date -Format ddMMyyyHHmmss
$tempFolder = 'c:\temp\BackupTests\'
Push-Location $tempFolder
$XML = $tempFolder + "BackupTestResults_$Date.xml"
$script = 'C:\temp\BackupPester.ps1'
Invoke-Pester -Script $Script -OutputFile $xml -OutputFormat NUnitXml
will provide an XML file like this
04 - XML output.PNG
We can also make use of the reportunit.exe from http://relevantcodes.com/ to create pretty HTML files from the XML files we created
This piece of code will download and extract the file if it does not exist in the directory
#download and extract ReportUnit.exe
$url = 'http://relevantcodes.com/Tools/ReportUnit/reportunit-1.2.zip'
$fullPath = Join-Path $tempFolder $url.Split("/")[-1]
$reportunit = $tempFolder + '\reportunit.exe'
if((Test-Path $reportunit) -eq $false)
{
(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadFile($url,$fullPath)
Expand-Archive -Path $fullPath -DestinationPath $tempFolder
}
and this will run it against the XML and open the file
##run reportunit against report.xml and display result in browser
$HTML = $tempFolder  + 'index.html'
& .\reportunit.exe $tempFolder
Invoke-Item $HTML
which will look  like
03 - pretty html file.gif
Happy Automating

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

 Get-Module dbatools

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

 Update-Module dbatools

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

Install-Module dbatools

Then you can use

Update-dbatools
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Taking dbatools Test-DbaLastBackup a little further

In a previous post I showed how easy it is to test your backups using Test-DbaLastBackup

Today I thought I would take it a little further and show you how PowerShell can be used to transmit or store this information in the manner you require

Test-DBALastBackup returns an object of information

SourceServer  : SQL2016N2
TestServer    : SQL2016N2
Database      : FadetoBlack
FileExists    : True
RestoreResult : Success
DbccResult    : Success
SizeMB        : 1243.26
BackupTaken   : 3/18/2017 12:36:07 PM
BackupFiles   : Z:\SQL2016N2\FadetoBlack\FULL_COPY_ONLY\SQL2016N2_FadetoBlack_FULL_COPY_ONLY_20170318_123607.bak

which shows the server, the database name, if the file exists, the restore result, the DBCC result, the size of the backup file, when the backup was taken and the path used

Text File

As it is an object we can make use of that in PowerShell. We can output the results to a file

Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer sql2016n2 -Destination SQL2016N1 -MaxMB 5 | Out-File C:\temp\Test-Restore.txt
notepad C:\temp\Test-Restore.txt

01 - out file.PNG

CSV

Or maybe you need a CSV

 Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer sql2016n2 -Destination SQL2016N1 -MaxMB 5 | Export-Csv  C:\temp\Test-Restore.csv -NoTypeInformation

02 - csv file.PNG

JSON

Maybe you want some json

 Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer sql2016n2 -Destination SQL2016N1| ConvertTo-Json | Out-file c:\temp\test-results.json

06 - json results.PNG

HTML

Or an HTML page


$Results = Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer sql2016n2 -Destination SQL2016N1
$Results | ConvertTo-Html | Out-File c:\temp\test-results.html

03 - html.PNG

Excel

or perhaps you want a nice colour coded Excel sheet to show your manager or the auditors

Import-Module dbatools

$TestServer = 'SQL2016N1'
$Server = 'SQL2016N2'
## Run the test and save to a variable
$Results = Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer $server -Destination $TestServer
# Set the filename
$TestDate = Get-Date
$Date = Get-Date -Format ddMMyyy_HHmmss
$filename = 'C:\Temp\TestResults_' + $Date + '.xlsx'
# Create a .com object for Excel
$xl = new-object -comobject excel.application
$xl.Visible = $true # Set this to False when you run in production
$wb = $xl.Workbooks.Add() # Add a workbook
$ws = $wb.Worksheets.Item(1) # Add a worksheet
$cells=$ws.Cells
$col = 1
$row = 3
## Create a legenc
$cells.item($row,$col)="Legend"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex = 34
$row ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="True or Success"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex = 10
$row ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="False or Failed"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 3
$row ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Skipped"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 16
$row ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Backup Under 7 days old"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 4
$row ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Backup Over 7 days old"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 3
## Create a header
$col ++
$row = 3
$cells.item($row,$col)="Source Server"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Test Server"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Database"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="File Exists"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Restore Result"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="DBCC Result"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Size Mb"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Backup Date"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)="Backup Files"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=16
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 34
$col = 2
$row = 4
foreach($result in $results)
{
$col = 2
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.SourceServer
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$col ++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.TestServer
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.Database
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.FileExists
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
if($result.FileExists -eq 'True')
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 10
}
elseif($result.FileExists -eq 'False')
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 3
}
else
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 16
}
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.RestoreResult
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
if($result.RestoreResult -eq 'Success')
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 10
}
elseif($result.RestoreResult -eq 'Failed')
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 3
}
else
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 16
}
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.DBCCResult
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
if($result.DBCCResult -eq 'Success')
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 10
}
elseif($result.DBCCResult -eq 'Failed')
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 3
}
else
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 16
}
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.SizeMb
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.BackupTaken
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
if($result.BackupTaken -gt (Get-Date).AddDays(-7))
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 4
}
else
{
    $Cells.item($row,$col).Interior.ColorIndex= 3
}
$col++
$cells.item($row,$col)=$Result.BackupFiles
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=12
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$row++
}
[void]$ws.cells.entireColumn.Autofit()
## Add the title after the autofit
$col = 2
$row = 1
$cells.item($row,$col)="This report shows the results of the test backups performed on $TestServer for $Server on $TestDate"
$cells.item($row,$col).font.size=18
$Cells.item($row,$col).Columnwidth = 10
$wb.Saveas($filename)
$xl.quit()

It looks like this. Green is Good, Red is Bad, Grey is don’t care!

Email

You might need to email the results, here I am using GMail as an example. With 2 factor authentication you need to use an app password in the credential

Import-Module dbatools
$TestServer = 'SQL2016N1'$Server = 'SQL2016N2'
## Run the test and save to a variable
$Results = Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer $server -Destination $TestServer -MaxMB 5
$to = ''
$smtp = 'smtp.gmail.com'
$port = 587
$cred = Get-Credential
$from = 'Beard@TheBeard.Local'
$subject = 'The Beard Reports on Backup Testing'
$Body = $Results | Format-Table | Out-String
Send-MailMessage -To $to -From $from -Body $Body -Subject $subject -SmtpServer $smtp -Priority High -UseSsl -Port $port -Credential $cred
07 -email
You can of course attach any of the above files as an attachment using the -attachment parameter in Send-MailMessage

Database

Of course, as good data professionals we probably want to put the data into a database where we can ensure that it is kept safe and secure

dbatools has a couple of commands to help with that too. We can use Out-DbaDataTable to create a datatable object and Write-DbaDatatable to write it to a database

Create a table

USE [TestResults]
GO
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[backuptest](
[SourceServer] [nvarchar](250) NULL,
[TestServer] [nvarchar](250) NULL,
[Database] [nvarchar](250) NULL,
[FileExists] [nvarchar](10) NULL,
[RestoreResult] [nvarchar](200) NULL,
[DBCCResult] [nvarchar](200) NULL,
[SizeMB] [int] NULL,
[Backuptaken] [datetime] NULL,
[BackupFiles] [nvarchar](300) NULL
) ON [PRIMARY]
GO
then add the data
Import-Module dbatools
$TestServer = 'SQL2016N1'
$Server = 'SQL2016N2'
$servers = 'SQL2005Ser2003','SQL2012Ser08AG1','SQL2012Ser08AG2','SQL2012Ser08AG3','SQL2014Ser12R2','SQL2016N1','SQL2016N2','SQL2016N3'
## Run the test for each server and save to a variable (This uses PowerShell v4 or above code)
$Results = $servers.ForEach{Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer $_ -Destination $TestServer -MaxMB 5}
## Convert to a daatatable.
$DataTable = Out-DbaDataTable -InputObject $Results
## Write to the database
Write-DbaDataTable -SqlServer $Server -Database TestResults -Schema dbo -Table backuptest -KeepNulls -InputObject $DataTable

and query it

08 - Database.PNG

Hopefully that has given you some ideas of how you can make use of this great command and also one of the benefits of PowerShell and the ability to use objects for different purposes

Happy Automating

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

 Get-Module dbatools

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

 Update-Module dbatools

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

Install-Module dbatools

Then you can use

Update-dbatools

 

 

 

 

Testing Your SQL Server Backups the Easy Way with PowerShell & dbatools

In a previous post I wrote about how easy it was to restore a whole SQL Servers user databases from a  directory using the dbatools module. Maybe it is a good idea to look at for disaster recovery scenarios but even PowerShell is going to be useless if your backups don’t work

But setting up a solution to test your backups (technically test your restores) is difficult isn’t it?

Lets use the dbatools module and see how easy it is

The dbatools module has a command called Test-DbaLastBackup if you look at the page or at the help using

 

Get-Help Test-DbaLastBackup -ShowWindow

 

you will see that this command

Restores all or some of the latest backups and performs a consistency check

1. Gathers information about the last full backups
2. Restores the backups to the Destination with a new name. If no Destination is specified, the originating SqlServer will be used.
3. The database is restored as “dbatools-testrestore-$databaseName” by default, but you can change dbatools-testrestore to whatever you would like using -Prefix
4. The internal file names are also renamed to prevent conflicts with original database
5. A consistency check is then performed
6. And the test database is finally dropped

So, if you only have one SQL Server but want to ensure that you are testing your backup files then as along as you have the diskspace you can simply run

Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer sql2016n2

and the latest backups that have been taken will be restored using a different name with different filenames, checked for consistency and then dropped

01 - simple test backups.PNG

and as you can see an object is returned
SourceServer  : SQL2016N2
TestServer    : SQL2016N2
Database      : FadetoBlack
FileExists    : True
RestoreResult : Success
DbccResult    : Success
SizeMB        : 1243.26
BackupTaken   : 3/18/2017 12:36:07 PM
BackupFiles   : Z:\SQL2016N2\FadetoBlack\FULL_COPY_ONLY\SQL2016N2_FadetoBlack_FULL_COPY_ONLY_20170318_123607.bak

which shows the Server, the database, if the file exists, the restore result, the DBCC result, the size of the backup file, when it was taken and the path used

You don’t have to use the same server and in many shops you would not want to. You can specify a destination server and you can also pipe the results to Out-GridView to enable easy filtering.

Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer sql2016n2 -Destination SQL2016N1 | OGV

Note you need to be backing up to a shared location ie a path that starts \\ I have fudged this a little in the demo for the keen eyed

03 - with OGV.PNG

Maybe you only want to test the backups for the important databases or some backups are restored using other means and you don’t need to test them this way. There is a databases parameter which you can tab through the database names

04 - choosing databases.gif

In the ISE you can see the drop down of database names

05 - in ISE.PNG

If you have limited space you might not want to test the largest databases so you can use the MaxMb parameter to only restore databases under this size. In the example below, you can see that Fadetoblack was skipped and the system databases were skipped as they are not backing up to a shared location

06 - max mb.PNG

The databases are restored onto the server using a different name and the files are also named differently to avoid any conflicts. The default prefix is dbatools-testrestore- but you can change this using the prefix switch if you wish

02 data files.PNG

You may not want to use your special, super quick storage for performing your test restores. If you have separate data drives that you would like to use for the restores, you can specify those with the -DataDirectory and -LogDirectory. If you do not use these switches then the command will use the default data and log locations.

Its possible to reduce the amount of checks that are done. If you only want to do a Verify Only on the backup then you can use the -VerifyOnly switch, you can skip the DBCC check by using the -NoCheck switch and you can leave the test restore databases on the server using the -NoDrop switch

Happy Automating

 

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

 Get-Module dbatools

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

 Update-Module dbatools

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

 Install-Module dbatools

Then you can use

 Update-dbatools

 

 

 

 

 

Restoring an entire SQL Server user databases with PowerShell using dbatools

All the good DBAs backup their databases.

A significant amount of SQL DBAs use Ola Hallengrens maintenance solution to do so.

This gives a folder structure like this

01 - folder structure.PNG

 

In my lab I had installed SQL 2016 on a server running Server 2016 TP5 which expired so I needed to re-install Windows and therefore needed to restore all of my user databases again. This was so easy using the dbatools module that I thought it was worth sharing to show how easy your disaster recovery process could be.

Having re-installed Windows and SQL and copied the backup files back to the server (although I could have used a network location), I then had to restore all of the user databases.

This is how I restored all of my user databases using the dbatools module command Restore-SQLBackupFromDirectory

 Restore-SqlBackupFromDirectory -SqlServer SQL2016N2 -Path '\\sql2016n2\c$\MSSQL\Backup\SQL2016N2'

Here it is in action

02 - Restore in action.PNG

This is the output

03 - output.PNG

That’s it. As simple as that. An entire SQL Servers user databases restored in one line of code. The latest Full, Latest Diff and latest Log backups for each user database all restored to the default file and log location without issue

If you look at the help for the command using

 Get-Help Restore-SqlBackupFromDirectory -ShowWindow

You will see that there is a -ReuseSourceFolderStructure switch which will use the file structure from the backup file if you have a complex file structure for your SQL files. You can also use a -NoRecovery switch so that you can add further backups, maybe you could use this for setting up mirroring or Always On Availability groups.

If you want to check the restore history of your SQL Server then you can use the Get-DbaRestoreHistory  command. I like to use Out-GridView as it enables you to filter and sort easily

 Get-DbaRestoreHistory -SqlServer sql2016N2 | ogv

 

04 get-database restore history

So you can see each file that was restored and where it was restored to

Happy Automating

 

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

 Get-Module dbatools

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

 Update-Module dbatools

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

 Install-Module dbatools

Then you can use

 Update-dbatools