dbachecks – Save the results to a database for historical reporting

I gave a presentation at SQL Day in Poland last week on dbachecks and one of the questions I got asked was will you write a command to put the results of the checks into a database for historical reporting.

The answer is no and here is the reasoning. The capability is already there. Most good PowerShell commands will only return an object and the beauty of an object is that you can do anything you like with it. Your only limit is your imagination ūüôā I have written about this before here.¬†The other reason is that it would be very difficult to write something that was easily configurable for the different requirements that people will require. But here is one way of doing it.

Create a configuration and save it

Let’s define a configuration and call it production. This is something that I do all of the time so that I can easily run a set of checks with the configuration that I want.

Now I can export that configuration to a json file and store on a file share or in source control using the code below. This makes it easy to embed the checks into an automation solution
and then I can use it with
01 - Invoke-DbcCheck
I would use one of the Show parameter values here if I was running it at the command line, probably fails to make reading the information easier

Add results to a database

This only gets us the test results on the screen, so if we want to save them to a database we have to use the PassThru parameter for Invoke-DbcCheck. I will run the checks again, save them to a variable

Then I can use the dbatools Write-DbaDatatable command to write the results to a table in a database. I need to do this twice, once for the summary and once for the test results

and I get two tables one for the summary

02 - summary

and one for the details

03 - detail
This works absolutely fine and I could continue to add test results in this fashion but it has no date property so it is not so useful for reporting.

Create tables and triggers

This is one way of doing it. I am not sure it is the best way but it works! I always look forward to how people take ideas and move them forward so if you have a better/different solution please blog about it and reference it in the comments below

First I created a staging table for the summary results

and a destination table with a primary key and a date column which defaults to todays date

and added an INSERT trigger to the staging table

and for the details I do the same thing. A details table

A stage table

with a trigger

Then I can use Write-DbaDatatable with a couple of extra parameters, FireTriggers to run the trigger, Truncate and Confirm:$false to avoid any confirmation because I want this to run without any interaction and I can get the results into the database.

detail with stage

Which means that I can now query some of this data and also create PowerBi reports for it.

To enable me to have results for the groups in dbachecks I have to do a little bit of extra manipulation. I can add all of the checks to the database using

But because the Ola Hallengren Job names are configuration items I need to update the values for those checks which I can do as follows

You can get a sample Power Bi report in my Github which also has the code from this blog post

Then you just need to open in PowerBi Desktop and

Click Edit Queries
Click Data Source Settings
Click Change Source
Change the Instance and Database names

09 - PowerBi

Then have an interactive report like this. Feel free to click around and see how it works. Use the arrows at the bottom right to go full-screen. NOTE – it filters by “today” so if I haven’t run the check and the import then click on one of the groups under “Today’s Checks by Group”

This enables me to filter the results and see what has happened in the past so I can filter by one instance
05 - filter by instance
or I can filter by a group of tests
07 - filter by instance
or even by a group of tests for an instance
08 - filter by instance and insance

Hopefully, this will give you some ideas of what you can do with your dbachecks results. You can find all of the code and the PowerBi in my GitHub

Happy Validating!

TSQL2sDay – Get-PostRoundup

First an apology, this round up is late!

The reason for that is an error in the PowerShell testing module Pester (That’s not completely true as you shall see!!)

I spoke in Stuttgart at the PowerShell Saturday last weekend and had intended to write this blog post whilst travelling, unfortunately I found a major error in Pester (again not strictly true but it makes a good story!!)

I explained it with this slide in my presentation

Yep, I forgot to pack my NUC with my VMs on it and had to re-write all my demos!!

But anyway, on to the TSQL2sDay posts

What a response. You wonderful people. I salute you with a Rimmer salute

There are 34 TSQL2sDay posts about dbatools, about starting with PowerShell, If you should learn PowerShell, SSAS, SSRS, Log Shipping, backups, restores, Pester, Default settings, best practices, migrations, Warnings in Agent Jobs, sqlpackage, VLFs, CMS, Disabling Named Pipes, Orphaned users, AG Status, AG Agent Jobs, logging, classes, auditing, copying files, ETL and more.

I am really pleased to see so many first timers to the TSQL2sDay blog monthly blog party. Please don’t let this be your only TSQL2sDay post. Come back next month and write a post on that topic.

Here they are below in the media of tweets, so that you can also go and follow these wonderful people who are so willing to share their knowledge. Say thank you to them, ask them questions, interact.

Learn, Share, Network

Volker wrote about testing best practices with dbatools

Dave explains why PowerShell is so useful to him in his ETL processes

Steve writes about the time he has saved using PowerShell to automate restores and audit SQL Server instances

Nate talks about copying large files like SQL Server backups using BITS with PowerShell

Warren talks about his experience as a beginner, the amount of things he automates and his DBReboot module

THANK YOU every single one and apologies if I have missed anyone!

 

 

Backing up SQL Server on Linux using Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution

With the release of SQL Server vNext CTP 1.4 SQL Agent was released for use on Linux. To install it on Ubuntu you need to upgrade your SQL Server to CTP 1.4. On Ubuntu you do this with

Once you have CTP 1.4 you can install SQL Agent as follows

for different flavours of Linux follow the steps here

Once you have done that you will see that the Agent is now available

01 - SSMS Agent Linux.PNG

So now I can schedule backups and maintenance for my Linux SQL databases using the agent. I immediately turned to Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution I downloaded the SQL file and ran it against my Linux server once I had changed the path for the backups to a directory I had created at /var/opt/mssql/backups notice that it is specified using Windows notation with C:\ at the root

The stored procedures were created

03 - stored procedures

and the jobs were created

04 - jobs.PNG

Now the jobs are not going to run as they are as they have CmdExec steps and this is not supported in SQL on Linux so we have to make some changes to the steps. As I blogged previously, this is really easy using PowerShell

First we need to grab the jobs into a variable. We will use Get-SQLAgentJobHistory from the sqlserver module which you need to download SSMS 2016 or later to get. You can get it from https://sqlps.io/dl As we are targeting a Linux SQL Server we will use SQL authentication which we will provide via Get-Credential and then take a look at the jobs

05 Powershell jobs.PNG

Once the jobs were in the variable I decided to filter out only the jobs that are calling the stored procedures to perform the backups, DBCC and Index optimisation and loop through them first. Backups are the most important after all

Then it is simply a case of replacing the sqlcmd text in the command to return it to T-SQL, adding the database name (I installed Ola’s stored procedures into the master database and changing the subsystem to use T-SQL instead of CmdExec

We can check that it has done this using PowerShell

06 - Jobs changed.PNG

or by looking in SSMS if you prefer

07 - jobs changed ssms.PNG

Now lets run the jobs and check the history using Get-SqlAgentJobHistory

08 - ogv for jobs.PNG

Which pretty much matches what you see in SSMS

09 - ssms jobs view.PNG

and if you look in the directory you see the files exactly as you would expect them to be

10 - Files in Linux

We still need to change the other jobs that Ola’s script create. If we look at the command steps

 

11 - job comands.PNG

We can see that the CommandLog Cleanup job can use the same PowerShell code as the backup jobs, the sp_delete_backuphistory and sp_purgejobhistory jobs need to refer to the msdb database instead of master. For the moment the Output File Cleanup job is the one that is not able to be run on Linux. Hopefully soon we will be able to run PowerShell job steps and that will be resolved as well

Here is the full snippet of code to change all of the jobs

 Happy Automating

Restoring an entire SQL Server user databases with PowerShell using dbatools

All the good DBAs backup their databases.

A significant amount of SQL DBAs use Ola Hallengrens maintenance solution to do so.

This gives a folder structure like this

01 - folder structure.PNG

 

In my lab I had installed SQL 2016 on a server running Server 2016 TP5 which expired so I needed to re-install Windows and therefore needed to restore all of my user databases again. This was so easy using the dbatools module that I thought it was worth sharing to show how easy your disaster recovery process could be.

Having re-installed Windows and SQL and copied the backup files back to the server (although I could have used a network location), I then had to restore all of the user databases.

This is how I restored all of my user databases using the dbatools module command Restore-SQLBackupFromDirectory

Here it is in action

02 - Restore in action.PNG

This is the output

03 - output.PNG

That’s it. As simple as that. An entire SQL Servers user databases restored in one line of code. The latest Full, Latest Diff and latest Log backups for each user database all restored to the default file and log location¬†without issue

If you look at the help for the command using

You will see that there is a -ReuseSourceFolderStructure switch which will use the file structure from the backup file if you have a complex file structure for your SQL files. You can also use a -NoRecovery switch so that you can add further backups, maybe you could use this for setting up mirroring or Always On Availability groups.

If you want to check the restore history of your SQL Server then you can use the Get-DbaRestoreHistory  command. I like to use Out-GridView as it enables you to filter and sort easily

 

04 get-database restore history

So you can see each file that was restored and where it was restored to

Happy Automating

 

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

Then you can use

 

Altering a Job Step on Hundreds of SQL Servers with PowerShell

I flew to Utrecht last week to present with Chrissy LeMaire and Sander Stad to present to the joint Dutch SQL and PowerShell User Groups. Whilst I was sat at the airport I got a phone call from my current client. ‚ÄúWe need to change the backup path for all of the servers to a different share, how long will it take you?‚ÄĚ

About 5 minutes ÔĀä (PowerShell is very powerful ‚Äď be careful when following these examples ūüėČ )

We will use the sqlserver module, so you will need to have installed the latest version of SSMS from https://sqlps.io/dl

This code was run using PowerShell version 5 and will not work on Powershell version 3 or lower as it uses the where method.

Lets grab all of our jobs on the estate. (You will need to fill the $Servers variable with the names of your instances, maybe from a database or CMS or a text file)

$Jobs = Get-SQLAgentJob -ServerInstance $Servers

Once we have the jobs we need to iterate only through the ones we need to. This step could also have been done in the line above. Lets assume we are using the Ola Hallengren Solution to backup our estate

Foreach($job in $Jobs.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*' -and $_.isenabled -eq $true})

Then because I have to target a specific job step I can iterate through those and filter in the same way

foreach ($Step in $Job.jobsteps.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*'})

Now all I need to do is to replace C:\Backup with C:\MSSQL\Backup (in this example I am using my labs backup paths)

$Step.Command = $Step.Command.Replace("Directory = N'C:\Backup'","Directory = N'C:\MSSQL\Backup'")

And then call the Alter method

$Step.Alter()

And that is all there is to it. Here is the full script I used

$Jobs = Get-SQLAgentJob -ServerInstance $Servers

Foreach($job in $Jobs.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*' -and $_.isenabled -eq $true})
{
foreach ($Step in $Job.jobsteps.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*'})
{
$Step.Command = $Step.Command.Replace("Directory = N'C:\Backup'","Directory = N'C:\MSSQL\Backup'")
$Step.Alter()
}
}

In only a few minutes I had altered several hundred instances worth of Ola Hallengren Jobs ūüôā

This is one of the many reasons I love PowerShell, it enables me to perform mass changes very quickly and easily. Of course, you need to make sure that you know that what you are changing is what you want to change. I have caused severe issues by altering the SQL alerts frequency to 1 second instead of one hour on an estate!! Although the beauty of PowerShell meant that I was able to change it very quickly once the problem was realised
You can change a lot of settings. If you look at what is available at a job step level
job-step-properties
Happy Automating

PowerShell, Pester and Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution

If you are a SQL DBA you will have heard of Ola Hallengrens Maintenance solution If you haven’t go and click the link and look at the easiest way to ensure that all of your essential database maintenance is performed. You can also watch a video from Ola at SQL Bits
Recently I was thinking about how I could validate that this solution was installed in the way that I wanted it to be so I turned to Pester You can find a great how to get started here which will show you how to get Pester and how to get started with TDD.
This isn’t TDD though this is Environment Validation and this is how I went about creating my test.
First I thought about what I would look for in SSMS when I had installed the maintenance solution and made a list of the things that I would check which looked something like this. This would be the checklist you would create (or have already created) for yourself or a junior following this install. This is how easy you can turn that checklist into a Pester Test and remove the human element and open your install for automated testing
  • SQL Server Agent is running – Otherwise the jobs won’t run ūüôā
  • We should have 4 backup jobs with a name of
  • DatabaseBackup – SYSTEM_DATABASES – FULL
  • DatabaseBackup – USER_DATABASES – FULL
  • DatabaseBackup – USER_DATABASES – DIFF
  • DatabaseBackup – USER_DATABASES – LOG
  • We should have Integrity Check and Index Optimisation Jobs
  • We should have the clean up jobs
  • All jobs should be scheduled
  • All jobs should be enabled
  • The jobs should have succeeded

I can certainly say that I have run through that check in my head and also written it down in an installation guide in the past. If I was being more careful I would have checked if there were the correct folders in the folder I was backing up to.

Ola’s script uses a default naming convention so this makes it easy. There should be a SERVERNAME or SERVERNAME$INSTANCENAME folder or if there is an Availability Group a CLUSTERNAME$AGNAME and in each of those a FULL DIFF and LOG folder which I can add to my checklist

So now we have our checklist we just need to turn in into a Pester Environmental Validation script

It would be useful to be able to pass in a number of instances so we will start with a foreach loop and then a Describe Block then split the server name and instance name, get the agent jobs and set the backup folder name

$ServerName = $Server.Split('\')[0]
$InstanceName = $Server.Split('\')[1]
$ServerName = $ServerName.ToUpper()
Describe 'Testing $Server Backup solution'{
BeforeAll {$Jobs = Get-SqlAgentJob -ServerInstance $Server
$srv = New-Object Microsoft.SQLServer.Management.SMO.Server $Server
$dbs = $Srv.Databases.Where{$_.status -eq 'Normal'}.name
if($InstanceName)
{
$DisplayName = 'SQL Server Agent ($InstanceName)'
$Folder = $ServerName + '$' + $InstanceName
}
else
{
$DisplayName = 'SQL Server Agent (MSSQLSERVER)'
$Folder = $ServerName
}
}
if($CheckForBackups -eq $true)
{
$CheckForDBFolders -eq $true
}
$Root = $Share + '\' + $Folder 
I also set the Agent service display name so I can get its status. I split the jobs up using a Context block, one each for Backups, Database maintenance and solution clean up but they all follow the same pattern. .First get the jobs

$Jobs = $Jobs.Where{($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - SYSTEM_DATABASES - FULL*' + $JobSuffix + '*') -or ($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - USER_DATABASES - FULL*' + $JobSuffix + '*') -or ($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - USER_DATABASES - DIFF*' + $JobSuffix + '*') -or ($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - USER_DATABASES - LOG*' + $JobSuffix + '*')}
Then we can iterate through them and check them but first lets test the Agent Service. You do this with an It Block and in it put a single test like this

actual-value | Should Be expected-value
So to check the Agent Job is running we can do this

(Get-service -ComputerName $ServerName -DisplayName $DisplayName).Status | Should Be 'Running'
To find out how to get the right values for any test I check using get member so to see what is available for a job I gathered the Agent Jobs into a variable using the Get-SQLAgentJob command in the new sqlserver module (which you can get by installing the latest SSMS from here) and then explored their properties using Get-Member and the values using Select Object

$jobs = Get-SqlAgentJob -ServerInstance $server
($Jobs | Get-Member -MemberType Property).name
$Jobs[0] | Select-Object *
then using a foreach to loop through them I can check that the jobs, exists, is enabled, has a schedule and succeeded last time it ran like this

$Jobs = $Jobs.Where{($_.Name -eq 'DatabaseIntegrityCheck - SYSTEM_DATABASES') -or ($_.Name -eq 'DatabaseIntegrityCheck - USER_DATABASES') -or ($_.Name -eq 'IndexOptimize - USER_DATABASES')}
foreach($job in $Jobs)
{
$JobName = $Job.Name
It '$JobName Job Exists'{
$Job | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
It '$JobName Job is enabled' {
$job.IsEnabled | Should Be 'True'
}
It '$JobName Job has schedule' {
$Job.HasSchedule | Should Be 'True'
}
if($DontCheckJobOutcome -eq $false)
{
It '$JobName Job succeeded' {
$Job.LastRunOutCome | Should Be 'Succeeded'
}
}
So I have checked the agent and the jobs and now I want to check the folders exist. First for the instance using Test-Path so the user running the PowerShell session must have privileges and access to list the files and folders

Context '$Share Share For $Server' {
It 'Should have the root folder $Root' {
Test-Path $Root | Should Be $true
}
The for every database we need to set some variables for the Folder path. We don’t back up tempdb so we ignore that and then check if the server is SQL2012 or above and if it is check if the database is a member of an availability group and set the folder name appropriately

  foreach($db in $dbs.Where{$_ -ne 'tempdb'})
{

if($Srv.VersionMajor -ge 11)
{
If($srv.Databases[$db].AvailabilityGroupName)
{
$AG = $srv.Databases[$db].AvailabilityGroupName
$Cluster = $srv.ClusterName
$OLAAg = $Cluster + '$' + $AG
if($Share.StartsWith('\\') -eq $False)
{
$UNC = $Share.Replace(':','$')
$Root = '\\' + $ServerName + '\' + $UNC + '\' + $OlaAG
}
else
{
$Root = '\\' + $ServerName + '\' + $UNC + '\' + $Folder
}
}
else
{
if($Share.StartsWith('\\') -eq $False)
{
$UNC = $Share.Replace(':','$')
$Root = '\\' + $ServerName + '\' + $UNC + '\' + $Folder
}
else
{
$Root = $Share + '\' + $Folder
}
}
}
$db = $db.Replace(' ','')
$Dbfolder = $Root + "\$db"
$Full = $Dbfolder + '\FULL'
$Diff = $Dbfolder + '\DIFF'
$Log  = $Dbfolder + '\LOG'
If($CheckForDBFolders -eq $True)
{
Context "Folder Check for $db on $Server on $Share" {
It "Should have a folder for $db database" {
Test-Path $Dbfolder |Should Be $true
} 
But we need some logic for checking for folders because Ola is smart and checks for Log Shipping databases so as not to break the LSN chain and system databases only have full folders and simple recovery databases only have full and diff folders. I used the System.IO.Directory Exists method as I found it slightly quicker for UNC Shares

If($CheckForDBFolders -eq $True)
{
Context 'Folder Check for $db on $Server on $Share' {
It 'Should have a folder for $db database' {
Test-Path $Dbfolder |Should Be $true
}
if($Db -notin ('master','msdb','model') -and ($Srv.Databases[$db].RecoveryModel -ne 'Simple') -and ( $LSDatabases -notcontains $db))
{
It 'Has a Full Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Full) | Should Be $True
}
It 'Has a Diff Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Diff) | Should Be $True
}
It 'Has a Log Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Log) | Should Be $True
}
} #
elseif(($Srv.Databases[$db].RecoveryModel -eq 'Simple') -and $Db -notin ('master','msdb','model') -or ( $LSDatabases -contains $db) )
{
It 'Has a Full Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Full) | Should Be $True
}
It 'Has a Diff Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Diff) | Should Be $True
}
} #
else
{
It 'Has a Full Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Full) | Should Be $True
}
}#
} # End Check for db folders
}
and a similar thing for the files in the folders although this caused me some more issues with performance. I first used Get-ChildItem but in folders where a log backup is running every 15 minutes it soon became very slow. So I then decided to compare the create time of the folder with the last write time which was significantly quicker for directories with a number of files but then fell down when there was a single file in the directory so if the times match I revert back to Get-ChildItem.
If anyone has a better more performant option I would be interested in knowing. I used √ėyvind Kallstad PowerShell Conference session Chasing the seconds Slides and Video¬†and tried the methods in there with Measure-Command but this was the best I came up with

If($CheckForBackups -eq $true)
{
Context ' File Check For $db on $Server on $Share' {
$Fullcreate = [System.IO.Directory]::GetCreationTime($Full)
$FullWrite = [System.IO.Directory]::GetLastWriteTime($Full)
if($Fullcreate -eq $FullWrite)
{
It 'Has Files in the FULL folder for $db' {
Get-ChildItem $Full\*.bak | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
}
else
{
It 'Has Files in the FULL folder for $db' {
$FullCreate | Should BeLessThan $FullWrite
}
}
It 'Full File Folder was written to within the last 7 days' {
$Fullwrite |Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddDays(-7)
}
if($Db -notin ('master','msdb','model'))
{
$Diffcreate = [System.IO.Directory]::GetCreationTime($Diff)
$DiffWrite = [System.IO.Directory]::GetLastWriteTime($Diff)
if($Diffcreate -eq $DiffWrite)
{
It 'Has Files in the DIFF folder for $db' {
Get-ChildItem $Diff\*.bak | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
}
else
{
It 'Has Files in the DIFF folder for $db' {
$DiffCreate | Should BeLessThan $DiffWrite
}
}</div><div>It 'Diff File Folder was written to within the last 24 Hours' {
$Diffwrite |Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddHours(-24)
}
}
if($Db -notin ('master','msdb','model') -and ($Srv.Databases[$db].RecoveryModel -ne 'Simple') -and ( $LSDatabases -notcontains $db))
{
$Logcreate = [System.IO.Directory]::GetCreationTime($Log)
$LogWrite = [System.IO.Directory]::GetLastWriteTime($Log)
if($Logcreate -eq $LogWrite)
{
It 'Has Files in the LOG folder for $db' {
Get-ChildItem $Log\*.trn | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
}
else
{
It 'Has Files in the LOG folder for $db' {
$LogCreate | Should BeLessThan $LogWrite
}
}
It 'Log File Folder was written to within the last 30 minutes' {
$Logwrite |Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddMinutes(-30)
}
}# Simple Recovery
}
}# Check for backups
You could just run the script you have just created from your check-list, hopefully this blog post can help you see that you  can do so.
But I like the message showing number of tests and successes and failures at the bottom and I want to use parameters in my script. I can do this like this

[CmdletBinding()]
## Pester Test to check OLA
Param(
$Instance,
$CheckForBackups,
$CheckForDBFolders,
$JobSuffix ,
$Share ,
[switch]$NoDatabaseRestoreCheck,
[switch]$DontCheckJobOutcome
)
and then call it using Invoke-Pester with the parameters like this

$Script = @{
Path = $Path;
Parameters = @{ Instance = Instance;
CheckForBackups = $true;
CheckForDBFolders = $true;
JobSuffix = 'BackupShare1';
Share = '\\Server1\BackupShare1';
NoDatabaseRestoreCheck= $true;
DontCheckJobOutcome = $true}
}
Invoke-Pester -Script $Script
but that’s a bit messy, hard to remember and won’t encourage people newer to Powershell to use it so I wrapped it in a function with some help and examples and put it in GitHub Test-OlaInstance.ps1¬†and Test-Ola. There is one thing to remember. You will need to add the path to Test-Ola.ps1 on Line 90 of Test-OlaInstance so that the script can find it
Once you have that you can call it for a single instance or a number of instances like so. Here I check for Folders and Backup files
$Servers =  'SQL2008Ser2008','SQL2012Ser08AG1','SQL2012Ser08AG2','SQL2014Ser12R2'
Test-OLAInstance -Instance $Servers -Share 'H:\' -CheckForBackups
and get¬† a nice result like this. In a little under 20 seconds I completed my checklist for 4 servers including checking if the files and folders exist for 61 databases ūüôā (The three failures were my Integrity Check jobs holding some test corrupt databases)
pester ola check.PNG
This gives me a nice and simple automated method of checking if Ola’s maintenance script has been correctly installed. I can use this for one server or many by passing in an array of servers (although they must use the same folder for backing up whether that is UNC or local) I can also add this to an automated build process to ensure that everything has been deployed correctly.
I hope you find it useful

Some Pester Tests for SQL Defaults

When I was at PowerShell Conference EU in Hannover last month (The videos are available now – click here and the slides and code here) I found out about Irwin Strachans Active Directory Operations Test which got me thinking.

I decided to do the same for my usual SQL Set-up. Treating all of your servers to the same defaults makes it even easier to manage at scale remotely.

I am comfortable with using SMO to gather and change properties on SQL Instances so I started by doing this

        It 'Should have a default Backup Directory of F:\SQLBACKUP\BACKUPS' {
$Scriptblock = {
[void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo');
$srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server .
return $srv.BackupDirectory}
$State = Invoke-Command -ComputerName ROB-SURFACEBOOK -ScriptBlock $Scriptblock
$State |Should Be 'F:\SQLBACKUP\BACKUPS'

This is the how to find the properties that you want

  ## Load the Assemblies
[void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo');
## Create a Server SMO object
$srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server SERVERNAME

## Explore it
$srv|gm

## If you find an array pick the first one and expand and then explore that
$srv.Databases[0] | select *
$srv.Databases[0] | gm

I quickly found as I added more tests that it was taking a long time to perform the tests (about 5 seconds each test) and that it took an age to fail each of the tests if the server name was incorrect or the server unavailable.

I fixed the first one by testing with a ping before running the tests

   ## Check for connectivity
if((Test-Connection $Server -count 1 -Quiet) -eq $false){
Write-Error 'Could not connect to $Server'
$_
continue
}

The continue is there because I wanted to loop through an array of servers

I improved the performance using a remote session and a custom object

      Describe "$Server" {
BeforeAll {
$Scriptblock = {
[pscustomobject]$Return = @{}
$srv = ''
$SQLAdmins = $Using:SQLAdmins
[void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName('Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo');
$srv = New-Object Microsoft.SQLServer.Management.SMO.Server $Server
$Return.DBAAdminDb = $Srv.Databases.Name.Contains('DBA-Admin')
$Logins = $srv.Logins.Where{$_.IsSystemObject -eq $false}.Name
$Return.SQLAdmins = @(Compare-Object $Logins $SQLAdmins -SyncWindow 0).Length - $Logins.count -eq $SQLAdmins.Count
$SysAdmins = $Srv.Roles['sysadmin'].EnumMemberNames()
$Return.SQLAdmin = @(Compare-Object $SysAdmins $SQLAdmins -SyncWindow 0).Length - $SysAdmins.count -eq $SQLAdmins.Count
$Return.BackupDirectory = $srv.BackupDirectory
$Return.DataDirectory = $srv.DefaultFile

The BeforeAll script block is run, as it sounds like it should, once before all of the tests, BeforeEach would run once before each of the tests. I define an empty custom object and then create an SMO object and add the properties I am interested in testing to it. I then return the custom object at the end

   $Return.Alerts82345Exist = ($srv.JobServer.Alerts |Where {$_.Messageid -eq 823 -or $_.Messageid -eq 824 -or $_.Messageid -eq 825}).Count
$Return.Alerts82345Enabled = ($srv.JobServer.Alerts |Where {$_.Messageid -eq 823 -or $_.Messageid -eq 824 -or $_.Messageid -eq 825 -and $_.IsEnabled -eq $true}).Count
$Return.SysDatabasesFullBackupToday = $srv.Databases.Where{$_.IsSystemObject -eq $true -and $_.Name -ne 'tempdb' -and $_.LastBackupDate -lt (Get-Date).AddDays(-1)}.Count
Return $Return
}
try {
$Return = Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock $Scriptblock -ComputerName $Server -ErrorAction Stop
}
catch {
Write-Error "Unable to Connect to $Server"
$Error
continue

I was then able to test against the property of the custom object

   It 'Should have Alerts for Severity 20 and above' {
$Return.Alerts20SeverityPlusExist | Should Be 6
}
It 'Severity 20 and above Alerts should be enabled' {
$Return.Alerts20SeverityPlusEnabled | Should Be 6
}
It 'Should have alerts for 823,824 and 825' {
$Return.Alerts82345Exist |Should Be 3
}
It 'Alerts for 823,824 and 825 should be enebled' {
$Return.Alerts82345Enabled |Should Be 3
}

Occasionally, for reasons I haven’t explored I had to test against the value property of the returned object

          It "The Full User Database Backup should be scheduled Weekly $OlaUserFullSchedule" {
$Return.OlaUserFullSchedule.value | Should Be $OlaUserFullSchedule
}

I wanted to be able to run the tests against environments or groups of servers with different default values so I parameterised the Test Results as well and then the logical step was to turn it into a function and then I could do some parameter splatting. This also gives me the opportunity to show all of the things that I am currently giving parameters to the test for

   $Parms = @{
Servers = 'SQLServer1','SQLServer2','SQLServer3';
SQLAdmins = 'THEBEARD\Rob','THEBEARD\SQLDBAsAlsoWithBeards';
BackupDirectory = 'C:\MSSQL\Backup';
DataDirectory = 'C:\MSSQL\Data\';
LogDirectory = 'C:\MSSQL\Logs\';
MaxMemMb = '4096';
Collation = 'Latin1_General_CI_AS';
TempFiles = 4 ;
OlaSysFullFrequency = 'Daily';
OlaSysFullStartTime = '21:00:00';
OlaUserFullSchedule = 'Weekly';
OlaUserFullFrequency = 1 ;## 1 for Sunday
OlaUserFullStartTime = '22:00:00';
OlaUserDiffSchedule = 'Weekly';
OlaUserDiffFrequency = 126; ## 126 for every day except Sunday
OlaUserDiffStartTime = '22:00:00';
OlaUserLogSubDayInterval = 15;
OlaUserLoginterval = 'Minute';
HasSPBlitz = $true;
HasSPBlitzCache = $True;
HasSPBlitzIndex = $True;
HasSPAskBrent = $true;
HASSPBlitzTrace =  $true;
HasSPWhoisActive = $true;
LogWhoIsActiveToTable = $true;
LogSPBlitzToTable = $true;
LogSPBlitzToTableEnabled = $true;
LogSPBlitzToTableScheduled = $true;
LogSPBlitzToTableSchedule = 'Weekly';
LogSPBlitzToTableFrequency = 2 ; # 2 means Monday
LogSPBlitzToTableStartTime  = '03:00:00'}

Test-SQLDefault @Parms

I have some other tests which always return what I want, particularly the firewall rules which you will have to modify to suit your own environment

To be able to run this you will need to have the Pester Module. If you are using Windows 10 then it is installed by default, if not

  Find-Module ‚ÄďName 'Pester' | Install-Module

You can find more about Pester here and here and also these videos from the conference
You can find the tests on GitHub here and I will continue to add to the defaults that I check.
This is not a replacement for other SQL configuration tools such as PBM but it is a nice simple way of giving a report on the current status of a SQL installation either at a particular point in time when something is wrong or after an installation prior to passing the server over to another team or into service

.

DBA Database scripts are on Github

It started with a tweet from Dusty

Tweets

The second session I presented at the fantastic PowerShell Conference Europe was about using the DBA Database to automatically install DBA scripts like sp_Blitz, sp_AskBrent, sp_Blitzindex from Brent Ozar , Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution , Adam Mechanics sp_whoisactive , This fantastic script for logging the results from sp_whoisactive to a table , Extended events sessions and other goodies for the sanity of the DBA.

By making use of the dbo.InstanceList in my DBA database I am able to target instances, by SQL Version, OS Version, Environment, Data Centre, System, Client or any other variable I choose. An agent job that runs every night will automatically pick up the instances and the scripts that are marked as needing installing. This is great when people release updates to the above scripts allowing you to target the development environment and test before they get put onto live.

I talked to a lot of people in Hannover and they all suggested that I placed the scripts onto GitHub and after some how-to instructions from a few people (Thank you Luke) I spent the weekend updating and cleaning up the code and you can now find it on GitHub here

github

I have added the DBA Database project, the Powershell scripts and Agent Job creation scripts to call those scripts and everything else I use. Some of the DBA Scripts I use (and links to those you need to go and get yourself for licensing reasons) and the Power Bi files as well. I will be adding some more jobs that I use to gather other information soon.

Please go and have a look and see if it is of use to you. It is massively customisable and I have spoken to various people who have extended it in interesting ways so I look forward to hearing about what you do with it.

As always, questions and comments welcome

 

 

Backing up to URL container name – case is important

If you use SQL Backup to URL to backup your databases to Azure blob storage remember that for the container name case is important

So

will work but

will give an (400) Bad Request Error which may not be easy to diagnose

If you are using Ola Hallengrens jobs to perform your backup then your job step will look like this

Note the @ChangeBackupType = ‘Y’ parameter which is not created by default but I think is very useful. If you have just created a database and take log backups every 15 minutes but differential (or full) every night the log backup will fail until a full backup has been taken. This parameter will check if a log backup is possible and if not take a full backup meaning that you still can keep to your RTO/RPO requirements even for newly created databases

Scheduling Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution Default Jobs with Powershell

If you are a SQL Server DBA you should know about Ola Hallengren and will probably have investigated his Maintenance Solution.

If you haven’t please start here https://ola.hallengren.com/

You can also watch his presentation at SQLBits at this link

http://sqlbits.com/Sessions/Event9/Inside_Ola_Hallengrens_Maintenance_Solution

where he talks about and demonstrates the solution.

It is possible to just run his script to install the solution and schedule the jobs and know that you have made a good start in keeping your databases safe. You should be more proactive than that and set specific jobs for your own special requirements but you can and should find that information in other places including the FAQ on Ola’s site

I particularly like the parameter @ChangeBackupType which when running the transaction log or differential backup will change the backup type to full if the backup type cannot be taken. This is excellent for picking up new databases and backing them up soon after creation

When you run the script the jobs are created but not scheduled and it is for this reason I created this function. All it does it schedule the jobs so that I know that they will be run when a new server is created and all the databases will be backed up. I can then go back at a later date and schedule them correctly for the servers workload or tweak them according to specific needs but this allows me that fuzzy feeling of knowing that the backups and other maintenance will be performed.

To accomplish this I pass a single parameter $Server to the function this is the connection string and should be in the format of SERVERNAME, SERVERNAME\INSTANCENAME or SERVERNAME\INSTANCENAME,Port

I then create a $srv SMO object as usual

$srv = New-Object Microsoft.SQLServer.Management.SMO.Server $Server

Create a JobServer object and a Jobs array which holds the Jobs

$JobServer = $srv.JobServer
$Jobs = $JobServer.Jobs

And set the schedule for each job. I pick each Job using the Where-Object Cmdlet and break out if the job does not exist

$Job = $Jobs|Where-Object {$_.Name -eq 'DatabaseBackup - SYSTEM_DATABASES - FULL'}
       if ($Job -eq $Null)
       {Write-Output "No Job with that name"
       break}

Then I create a Schedule object and set its properties and create the schedule

$Schedule = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Agent.JobSchedule ($job, 'Daily - Midnight ++ Not Sunday')
$Schedule.ActiveEndDate = Get-Date -Month 12 -Day 31 -Year 9999
$Schedule.ActiveEndTimeOfDay = '23:59:59'
$Schedule.FrequencyTypes = "Weekly"
$Schedule.FrequencyRecurrenceFactor = 1
$Schedule.FrequencySubDayTypes = "Once"
$Schedule.FrequencyInterval = 126 # Weekdays 62 + Saturdays 64 - <a href="https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/microsoft.sqlserver.management.smo.agent.jobschedule.frequencyinterval.aspx">https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/microsoft.sqlserver.management.smo.agent.jobschedule.frequencyinterval.aspx</a>
$Schedule.ActiveStartDate = get-date
$schedule.ActiveStartTimeOfDay = '00:16:00'
$Schedule.IsEnabled = $true
$Schedule.Create()

I have picked this example for the blog as it shows some of the less obvious gotchas. Setting the active end date could only be achieved by using the Get-Date Cmdlet and defining the date. The schedule frequency interval above is for every day except Sundays. This achieved by using the following table from MSDN which is always my first port of call when writing these scripts

WeekDays.Sunday = 1
WeekDays.Monday = 2
WeekDays.Tuesday = 4
WeekDays.Wednesday = 8
WeekDays.Thursday = 16
WeekDays.Friday = 32
WeekDays.Saturday = 64
WeekDays.WeekDays = 62
WeekDays.WeekEnds = 65
WeekDays.EveryDay = 127

Combine values using an OR logical operator to set more than a single day. For example, combine WeekDays.Monday and WeekDays.Friday (FrequencyInterval = 2 + 32 = 34) to schedule an activity for Monday and Friday.

It is easy using this to set up whichever schedule you wish by combining the numbers. I would advise commenting it in the script so that your future self or following DBAs can understand what is happening.

You can tweak this script or use the code to work with any Agent Jobs and set the schedules accordingly and you can check that you have set the schedules correctly with this code

   $srv = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $Server
   $JObserver = $srv.JobServer
   $JObs = $JObserver.Jobs
   $ActiveStartTimeOfDay = @{Name = "ActiveStartTimeOfDay"; Expression = {$_.JobSchedules.ActiveStartTimeOfDay}}
   $FrequencyInterval = @{Name = "FrequencyInterval"; Expression = {$_.JobSchedules.FrequencyInterval}}
   $FrequencyTypes = @{Name = "FrequencyTypes"; Expression = {$_.JobSchedules.FrequencyTypes}}
   $IsEnabled = @{Name = "IsEnabled"; Expression = {$_.JobSchedules.IsEnabled}}
   $Jobs|Where-Object{$_.Category -eq 'Database Maintenance'}|select name,$IsEnabled,$FrequencyTypes,$FrequencyInterval,$ActiveStartTimeOfDay|Format-Table -AutoSize

You can get the script from Script Center via the link below or by searching for “Ola” using the script browser add-in straight from ISE

browser

https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/Schedule-Ola-Hallengrens-a66a3c89