Testing SQL Server Access to a share with PowerShell using dbatools

A good security practice is to backup our SQL Servers to a network share but not allow users to be able to browse the share. How can we ensure that our SQL Server has access or test it if it has been set up by someone else?

Lets set this up.

First lets create a share for our backups

Description='The Place for SQL Backups'
New-FileShare @FileShareParams

This will create us a share called SQLBackups on the D drive of the server beardnuc, but without any permissions, lets grant permissions to everyone

 Name = 'SQLBackups'
 AccessRight = 'Modify'
 AccountName = 'Everyone'}
Grant-FileShareAccess @FileSharePermsParams

01 file share.PNG

The share is created and I can access it and create a file

02 - create a file.PNG

and as we can see the permissions are granted for everyone

03 -permissions.PNG

OK, that’s not what we want so lets revoke that permission.

Revoke-FileShareAccess Name SQLBackups AccountName 'Everyone'

04 revoked.PNG

Now lets add permissions just for our SQL Server Service Accounts

$FileSharePermsParams = @{
Name = 'SQLBackups'
AccessRight = 'Modify'
AccountName = 'SQL_DBEngine_Service_Accounts
Grant-FileShareAccess @FileSharePermsParams 
and explicitly deny our DBA user accounts from accessing them.
$BlockFileShareParams = @{
Name = 'SQLBackups'
AccountName = 'SQL_DBAs_The_Cool_Ones'
Block-FileShareAccess @BlockFileShareParams
In the GUI our permissions look like this
and when I try to access as THEBEARD\Rob I get this

07 -no permissions.PNG

So how can I check that I have access from my SQL Server? Sure I could get the password of the SQL Service account and run a process as that account, not saying that’s a good idea but it could be done. Of course it couldn’t be done if you are using Managed Service Accounts or Group Managed Service Accounts but there is a way

Enter dbatools to the rescue 😉 The dbatools module (for those that don’t know) is a PowerShell module written by amazing folks in the community designed to make administrating your SQL Server significantly easier using PowerShell. The instructions for installing it are available here It comprises of 182 separate commands at present

There is a command called Test-SqlPath As always start with Get-Help

Get-Help Test-SqlPath -Full

08 - get help.PNG

So it uses master.dbo.xp_fileexist to determine if a file or directory exists, from the perspective of the SQL Server service account, has three parameters Sqlserver, Path and SqlCredential for SQL Authentication. Of course if that stored procedure is disabled on your estate then this command will not be of use to you. With that in mind, lets run it and see what it does
Test-SqlPath -SqlServer sql2016n1 -Path \\beardnuc\SQLBackups
09 - path test

That’s good I have access, lets back a database up

Backup-SqlDatabase -ServerInstance SQL2016N1 -Database DBA-Admin -CopyOnly -BackupAction Database -BackupFile '\\BeardNuc\SQLBackups\Test-DBA-Admin.bak'
Ah, I cant show you as I don’t have access. Better get in touch with the data centre admin to check 😉 Luckily, I am my own data centre admin and have another account I can use 🙂
10 - check

So what if we want to test all of our servers for access to the new share? I tried this

$SQLServers = (Get-VM -ComputerName beardnuc).Where{$_.Name -like '*SQL*' -and $_.Name -notlike 'SQL2008Ser2008'}.Name
Test-SqlPath -SqlServer $SQLServers -Path '\\BeardNuc\SQLBackups'
but unfortunately I hit an error
11 - error.PNG
It seems that at the moment (version 0.8.942) this command only accepts a single server. This is what you should do if you find either a bug or have an idea for dbatools. Raise an issue on Github
Navigate to the GitHub repository and click on issues. I generally search for the command name in the issues to see if someone else has beaten me to it
12 - issues
If those issues don’t match yours then click the green New Issue button
There is a template to fill in which asks you to specify your Windows, PowerShell and SQL versions with the commands that you need to do so included. Please do this and paste the results in as it will help the folks to replicate the issues in the case of more complicated  bugs
I created this issue with a potential fix as well, you don’t have to do that, just letting the folks know is good enough
Until that issue is resolved, you can check all of your servers as follows
$SQLServers=(Get-VM -ComputerName beardnuc).Where{$_.Name -like '*SQL*' -and $_.Name -notlike 'SQL2008Ser2008'}.Name
foreach($Server in $SQLServers)
$Test = Test-SqlPath -SqlServer $Server -Path '\\BeardNuc\SQLBackups'
Server = $Server
Result = $Test
13 - servers.PNG
and if I remove one of the service accounts from the group and restart the service an run the command again
14 - one fails.PNG
So that’s how to use dbatools to check that your SQL Server have access to a Network share and also how to create an issue on GitHub for dbatools and help it to get even better

Happy Automating

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

 Get-Module dbatools

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

 Update-Module dbatools

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

Install-Module dbatools

Then you can use