TSQL2sDay – Get-PostRoundup

First an apology, this round up is late!

The reason for that is an error in the PowerShell testing module Pester (That’s not completely true as you shall see!!)

I spoke in Stuttgart at the PowerShell Saturday last weekend and had intended to write this blog post whilst travelling, unfortunately I found a major error in Pester (again not strictly true but it makes a good story!!)

I explained it with this slide in my presentation

Yep, I forgot to pack my NUC with my VMs on it and had to re-write all my demos!!

But anyway, on to the TSQL2sDay posts

What a response. You wonderful people. I salute you with a Rimmer salute

There are 34 TSQL2sDay posts about dbatools, about starting with PowerShell, If you should learn PowerShell, SSAS, SSRS, Log Shipping, backups, restores, Pester, Default settings, best practices, migrations, Warnings in Agent Jobs, sqlpackage, VLFs, CMS, Disabling Named Pipes, Orphaned users, AG Status, AG Agent Jobs, logging, classes, auditing, copying files, ETL and more.

I am really pleased to see so many first timers to the TSQL2sDay blog monthly blog party. Please don’t let this be your only TSQL2sDay post. Come back next month and write a post on that topic.

Here they are below in the media of tweets, so that you can also go and follow these wonderful people who are so willing to share their knowledge. Say thank you to them, ask them questions, interact.

Learn, Share, Network

Volker wrote about testing best practices with dbatools

Dave explains why PowerShell is so useful to him in his ETL processes

Steve writes about the time he has saved using PowerShell to automate restores and audit SQL Server instances

Nate talks about copying large files like SQL Server backups using BITS with PowerShell

Warren talks about his experience as a beginner, the amount of things he automates and his DBReboot module

THANK YOU every single one and apologies if I have missed anyone!

 

 

Test your Sqlserver backups on Linux with PowerShell and dbatools

I have written about Test-DbaLastBackup in posts here, here and here. They have been Windows only posts.

With SQL Server vNext CTP 1.4 now available and providing SQL Agent capability on Linux, I wrote here about using Ola Hallengrens scripts on Linux SQL Servers so can Test-DbaLastBackup work with Linux?

01 - Yes it does.PNG

Yes it does!!

and I caught the database being restored in SSMS as well

02 - SSMS.PNG

Happy Automating 🙂

 

Using Pester with dbatools Test-DbaLastBackup

In previous posts I have shown how to use Test-DbaLastBackup from dbatools and how you can make use of the results. Today we will look at using  Pester with the results

Pester provides a framework for running unit tests to execute and validate PowerShell commands from within PowerShell. Pester consists of a simple set of functions that expose a testing domain-specific language (DSL) for isolating, running, evaluating and reporting the results of PowerShell commands.

we shall use it to validate our results. First we need to gather our results as we have seen before, In this example I have set the MaxMb to 5 so change that if you are playing along

Import-Module dbatools
$TestServer = 'SQL2016N1'
$Server = 'SQL2016N2'
$servers = 'SQL2016N1','SQL2016N2'
$Results = $servers.ForEach{Test-DbaLastBackup -SqlServer $_ -Destination $TestServer -MaxMB 5}
Then we need to write some Pester Tests. I tried to use Test Cases which are the correct method to iterate through collections as Mike Robbins shows here but Pester does not accept the type of object that is returned from this command for that. It’s ok though, because Pester is just PowerShell we can use a foreach loop.
In this scenario, we are testing for failures rather than when the backup test has skipped due to the file path not being a network share or the size being greater than our max size, so our checks are using the Should Not assertion. I have also added a test for the time the backup was taken.
Describe "Last Backup Test results - NOTE THIS IGNORES Skipped restores,DBCC and BackupFiles" {
foreach($result in $results)
{
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) File Should Exist" {
$Result.FileExists| Should Not Be 'False'
}
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) Restore should be Success" {
$Result.RestoreResult| Should Not Be 'False'
}
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) DBCC should be Success" {
$Result.DBCCResult| Should Not Be 'False'
}
It "$($Result.Database) on $($Result.SourceServer) Backup Should be less than a week old" {
$Result.BackupTaken| Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddDays(-7)
}
}
If we run that we get an output like this. Green is Good Red is Bad 🙂
01 - pester script.PNG
We can save the script to a file and use the Invoke-Pester to call it like this.
Invoke-Pester C:\temp\BackupPester.ps1
(Some Restore Frames removed for brevity)
02 -invoke pester.gif
invoke-Pester can output results to a file so we can output to XML which can be consumed by many things
$Date = Get-Date -Format ddMMyyyHHmmss
$tempFolder = 'c:\temp\BackupTests\'
Push-Location $tempFolder
$XML = $tempFolder + "BackupTestResults_$Date.xml"
$script = 'C:\temp\BackupPester.ps1'
Invoke-Pester -Script $Script -OutputFile $xml -OutputFormat NUnitXml
will provide an XML file like this
04 - XML output.PNG
We can also make use of the reportunit.exe from http://relevantcodes.com/ to create pretty HTML files from the XML files we created
This piece of code will download and extract the file if it does not exist in the directory
#download and extract ReportUnit.exe
$url = 'http://relevantcodes.com/Tools/ReportUnit/reportunit-1.2.zip'
$fullPath = Join-Path $tempFolder $url.Split("/")[-1]
$reportunit = $tempFolder + '\reportunit.exe'
if((Test-Path $reportunit) -eq $false)
{
(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadFile($url,$fullPath)
Expand-Archive -Path $fullPath -DestinationPath $tempFolder
}
and this will run it against the XML and open the file
##run reportunit against report.xml and display result in browser
$HTML = $tempFolder  + 'index.html'
& .\reportunit.exe $tempFolder
Invoke-Item $HTML
which will look  like
03 - pretty html file.gif
Happy Automating

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

 Get-Module dbatools

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

 Update-Module dbatools

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

Install-Module dbatools

Then you can use

Update-dbatools

Backing up SQL Server on Linux using Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution

With the release of SQL Server vNext CTP 1.4 SQL Agent was released for use on Linux. To install it on Ubuntu you need to upgrade your SQL Server to CTP 1.4. On Ubuntu you do this with

Once you have CTP 1.4 you can install SQL Agent as follows

for different flavours of Linux follow the steps here

Once you have done that you will see that the Agent is now available

01 - SSMS Agent Linux.PNG

So now I can schedule backups and maintenance for my Linux SQL databases using the agent. I immediately turned to Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution I downloaded the SQL file and ran it against my Linux server once I had changed the path for the backups to a directory I had created at /var/opt/mssql/backups notice that it is specified using Windows notation with C:\ at the root

The stored procedures were created

03 - stored procedures

and the jobs were created

04 - jobs.PNG

Now the jobs are not going to run as they are as they have CmdExec steps and this is not supported in SQL on Linux so we have to make some changes to the steps. As I blogged previously, this is really easy using PowerShell

First we need to grab the jobs into a variable. We will use Get-SQLAgentJobHistory from the sqlserver module which you need to download SSMS 2016 or later to get. You can get it from https://sqlps.io/dl As we are targeting a Linux SQL Server we will use SQL authentication which we will provide via Get-Credential and then take a look at the jobs

05 Powershell jobs.PNG

Once the jobs were in the variable I decided to filter out only the jobs that are calling the stored procedures to perform the backups, DBCC and Index optimisation and loop through them first. Backups are the most important after all

Then it is simply a case of replacing the sqlcmd text in the command to return it to T-SQL, adding the database name (I installed Ola’s stored procedures into the master database and changing the subsystem to use T-SQL instead of CmdExec

We can check that it has done this using PowerShell

06 - Jobs changed.PNG

or by looking in SSMS if you prefer

07 - jobs changed ssms.PNG

Now lets run the jobs and check the history using Get-SqlAgentJobHistory

08 - ogv for jobs.PNG

Which pretty much matches what you see in SSMS

09 - ssms jobs view.PNG

and if you look in the directory you see the files exactly as you would expect them to be

10 - Files in Linux

We still need to change the other jobs that Ola’s script create. If we look at the command steps

 

11 - job comands.PNG

We can see that the CommandLog Cleanup job can use the same PowerShell code as the backup jobs, the sp_delete_backuphistory and sp_purgejobhistory jobs need to refer to the msdb database instead of master. For the moment the Output File Cleanup job is the one that is not able to be run on Linux. Hopefully soon we will be able to run PowerShell job steps and that will be resolved as well

Here is the full snippet of code to change all of the jobs

 Happy Automating

Restoring an entire SQL Server user databases with PowerShell using dbatools

All the good DBAs backup their databases.

A significant amount of SQL DBAs use Ola Hallengrens maintenance solution to do so.

This gives a folder structure like this

01 - folder structure.PNG

 

In my lab I had installed SQL 2016 on a server running Server 2016 TP5 which expired so I needed to re-install Windows and therefore needed to restore all of my user databases again. This was so easy using the dbatools module that I thought it was worth sharing to show how easy your disaster recovery process could be.

Having re-installed Windows and SQL and copied the backup files back to the server (although I could have used a network location), I then had to restore all of the user databases.

This is how I restored all of my user databases using the dbatools module command Restore-SQLBackupFromDirectory

Here it is in action

02 - Restore in action.PNG

This is the output

03 - output.PNG

That’s it. As simple as that. An entire SQL Servers user databases restored in one line of code. The latest Full, Latest Diff and latest Log backups for each user database all restored to the default file and log location without issue

If you look at the help for the command using

You will see that there is a -ReuseSourceFolderStructure switch which will use the file structure from the backup file if you have a complex file structure for your SQL files. You can also use a -NoRecovery switch so that you can add further backups, maybe you could use this for setting up mirroring or Always On Availability groups.

If you want to check the restore history of your SQL Server then you can use the Get-DbaRestoreHistory  command. I like to use Out-GridView as it enables you to filter and sort easily

 

04 get-database restore history

So you can see each file that was restored and where it was restored to

Happy Automating

 

NOTE – The major 1.0 release of dbatools due in the summer 2017 may have breaking changes which will stop the above code from working. There are also new commands coming which may replace this command. This blog post was written using dbatools version 0.8.942 You can check your version using

and update it using an Administrator PowerShell session with

You may find that you get no output from Update-Module as you have the latest version. If you have not installed the module from the PowerShell Gallery using

Then you can use

 

Altering a Job Step on Hundreds of SQL Servers with PowerShell

I flew to Utrecht last week to present with Chrissy LeMaire and Sander Stad to present to the joint Dutch SQL and PowerShell User Groups. Whilst I was sat at the airport I got a phone call from my current client. “We need to change the backup path for all of the servers to a different share, how long will it take you?”

About 5 minutes  (PowerShell is very powerful – be careful when following these examples 😉 )

We will use the sqlserver module, so you will need to have installed the latest version of SSMS from https://sqlps.io/dl

This code was run using PowerShell version 5 and will not work on Powershell version 3 or lower as it uses the where method.

Lets grab all of our jobs on the estate. (You will need to fill the $Servers variable with the names of your instances, maybe from a database or CMS or a text file)

$Jobs = Get-SQLAgentJob -ServerInstance $Servers

Once we have the jobs we need to iterate only through the ones we need to. This step could also have been done in the line above. Lets assume we are using the Ola Hallengren Solution to backup our estate

Foreach($job in $Jobs.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*' -and $_.isenabled -eq $true})

Then because I have to target a specific job step I can iterate through those and filter in the same way

foreach ($Step in $Job.jobsteps.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*'})

Now all I need to do is to replace C:\Backup with C:\MSSQL\Backup (in this example I am using my labs backup paths)

$Step.Command = $Step.Command.Replace("Directory = N'C:\Backup'","Directory = N'C:\MSSQL\Backup'")

And then call the Alter method

$Step.Alter()

And that is all there is to it. Here is the full script I used

$Jobs = Get-SQLAgentJob -ServerInstance $Servers

Foreach($job in $Jobs.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*' -and $_.isenabled -eq $true})
{
foreach ($Step in $Job.jobsteps.Where{$_.Name -like '*DatabaseBackup*'})
{
$Step.Command = $Step.Command.Replace("Directory = N'C:\Backup'","Directory = N'C:\MSSQL\Backup'")
$Step.Alter()
}
}

In only a few minutes I had altered several hundred instances worth of Ola Hallengren Jobs 🙂

This is one of the many reasons I love PowerShell, it enables me to perform mass changes very quickly and easily. Of course, you need to make sure that you know that what you are changing is what you want to change. I have caused severe issues by altering the SQL alerts frequency to 1 second instead of one hour on an estate!! Although the beauty of PowerShell meant that I was able to change it very quickly once the problem was realised
You can change a lot of settings. If you look at what is available at a job step level
job-step-properties
Happy Automating

PowerShell, Pester and Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution

If you are a SQL DBA you will have heard of Ola Hallengrens Maintenance solution If you haven’t go and click the link and look at the easiest way to ensure that all of your essential database maintenance is performed. You can also watch a video from Ola at SQL Bits
Recently I was thinking about how I could validate that this solution was installed in the way that I wanted it to be so I turned to Pester You can find a great how to get started here which will show you how to get Pester and how to get started with TDD.
This isn’t TDD though this is Environment Validation and this is how I went about creating my test.
First I thought about what I would look for in SSMS when I had installed the maintenance solution and made a list of the things that I would check which looked something like this. This would be the checklist you would create (or have already created) for yourself or a junior following this install. This is how easy you can turn that checklist into a Pester Test and remove the human element and open your install for automated testing
  • SQL Server Agent is running – Otherwise the jobs won’t run 🙂
  • We should have 4 backup jobs with a name of
  • DatabaseBackup – SYSTEM_DATABASES – FULL
  • DatabaseBackup – USER_DATABASES – FULL
  • DatabaseBackup – USER_DATABASES – DIFF
  • DatabaseBackup – USER_DATABASES – LOG
  • We should have Integrity Check and Index Optimisation Jobs
  • We should have the clean up jobs
  • All jobs should be scheduled
  • All jobs should be enabled
  • The jobs should have succeeded

I can certainly say that I have run through that check in my head and also written it down in an installation guide in the past. If I was being more careful I would have checked if there were the correct folders in the folder I was backing up to.

Ola’s script uses a default naming convention so this makes it easy. There should be a SERVERNAME or SERVERNAME$INSTANCENAME folder or if there is an Availability Group a CLUSTERNAME$AGNAME and in each of those a FULL DIFF and LOG folder which I can add to my checklist

So now we have our checklist we just need to turn in into a Pester Environmental Validation script

It would be useful to be able to pass in a number of instances so we will start with a foreach loop and then a Describe Block then split the server name and instance name, get the agent jobs and set the backup folder name

$ServerName = $Server.Split('\')[0]
$InstanceName = $Server.Split('\')[1]
$ServerName = $ServerName.ToUpper()
Describe 'Testing $Server Backup solution'{
BeforeAll {$Jobs = Get-SqlAgentJob -ServerInstance $Server
$srv = New-Object Microsoft.SQLServer.Management.SMO.Server $Server
$dbs = $Srv.Databases.Where{$_.status -eq 'Normal'}.name
if($InstanceName)
{
$DisplayName = 'SQL Server Agent ($InstanceName)'
$Folder = $ServerName + '$' + $InstanceName
}
else
{
$DisplayName = 'SQL Server Agent (MSSQLSERVER)'
$Folder = $ServerName
}
}
if($CheckForBackups -eq $true)
{
$CheckForDBFolders -eq $true
}
$Root = $Share + '\' + $Folder 
I also set the Agent service display name so I can get its status. I split the jobs up using a Context block, one each for Backups, Database maintenance and solution clean up but they all follow the same pattern. .First get the jobs

$Jobs = $Jobs.Where{($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - SYSTEM_DATABASES - FULL*' + $JobSuffix + '*') -or ($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - USER_DATABASES - FULL*' + $JobSuffix + '*') -or ($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - USER_DATABASES - DIFF*' + $JobSuffix + '*') -or ($_.Name -like 'DatabaseBackup - USER_DATABASES - LOG*' + $JobSuffix + '*')}
Then we can iterate through them and check them but first lets test the Agent Service. You do this with an It Block and in it put a single test like this

actual-value | Should Be expected-value
So to check the Agent Job is running we can do this

(Get-service -ComputerName $ServerName -DisplayName $DisplayName).Status | Should Be 'Running'
To find out how to get the right values for any test I check using get member so to see what is available for a job I gathered the Agent Jobs into a variable using the Get-SQLAgentJob command in the new sqlserver module (which you can get by installing the latest SSMS from here) and then explored their properties using Get-Member and the values using Select Object

$jobs = Get-SqlAgentJob -ServerInstance $server
($Jobs | Get-Member -MemberType Property).name
$Jobs[0] | Select-Object *
then using a foreach to loop through them I can check that the jobs, exists, is enabled, has a schedule and succeeded last time it ran like this

$Jobs = $Jobs.Where{($_.Name -eq 'DatabaseIntegrityCheck - SYSTEM_DATABASES') -or ($_.Name -eq 'DatabaseIntegrityCheck - USER_DATABASES') -or ($_.Name -eq 'IndexOptimize - USER_DATABASES')}
foreach($job in $Jobs)
{
$JobName = $Job.Name
It '$JobName Job Exists'{
$Job | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
It '$JobName Job is enabled' {
$job.IsEnabled | Should Be 'True'
}
It '$JobName Job has schedule' {
$Job.HasSchedule | Should Be 'True'
}
if($DontCheckJobOutcome -eq $false)
{
It '$JobName Job succeeded' {
$Job.LastRunOutCome | Should Be 'Succeeded'
}
}
So I have checked the agent and the jobs and now I want to check the folders exist. First for the instance using Test-Path so the user running the PowerShell session must have privileges and access to list the files and folders

Context '$Share Share For $Server' {
It 'Should have the root folder $Root' {
Test-Path $Root | Should Be $true
}
The for every database we need to set some variables for the Folder path. We don’t back up tempdb so we ignore that and then check if the server is SQL2012 or above and if it is check if the database is a member of an availability group and set the folder name appropriately

  foreach($db in $dbs.Where{$_ -ne 'tempdb'})
{

if($Srv.VersionMajor -ge 11)
{
If($srv.Databases[$db].AvailabilityGroupName)
{
$AG = $srv.Databases[$db].AvailabilityGroupName
$Cluster = $srv.ClusterName
$OLAAg = $Cluster + '$' + $AG
if($Share.StartsWith('\\') -eq $False)
{
$UNC = $Share.Replace(':','$')
$Root = '\\' + $ServerName + '\' + $UNC + '\' + $OlaAG
}
else
{
$Root = '\\' + $ServerName + '\' + $UNC + '\' + $Folder
}
}
else
{
if($Share.StartsWith('\\') -eq $False)
{
$UNC = $Share.Replace(':','$')
$Root = '\\' + $ServerName + '\' + $UNC + '\' + $Folder
}
else
{
$Root = $Share + '\' + $Folder
}
}
}
$db = $db.Replace(' ','')
$Dbfolder = $Root + "\$db"
$Full = $Dbfolder + '\FULL'
$Diff = $Dbfolder + '\DIFF'
$Log  = $Dbfolder + '\LOG'
If($CheckForDBFolders -eq $True)
{
Context "Folder Check for $db on $Server on $Share" {
It "Should have a folder for $db database" {
Test-Path $Dbfolder |Should Be $true
} 
But we need some logic for checking for folders because Ola is smart and checks for Log Shipping databases so as not to break the LSN chain and system databases only have full folders and simple recovery databases only have full and diff folders. I used the System.IO.Directory Exists method as I found it slightly quicker for UNC Shares

If($CheckForDBFolders -eq $True)
{
Context 'Folder Check for $db on $Server on $Share' {
It 'Should have a folder for $db database' {
Test-Path $Dbfolder |Should Be $true
}
if($Db -notin ('master','msdb','model') -and ($Srv.Databases[$db].RecoveryModel -ne 'Simple') -and ( $LSDatabases -notcontains $db))
{
It 'Has a Full Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Full) | Should Be $True
}
It 'Has a Diff Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Diff) | Should Be $True
}
It 'Has a Log Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Log) | Should Be $True
}
} #
elseif(($Srv.Databases[$db].RecoveryModel -eq 'Simple') -and $Db -notin ('master','msdb','model') -or ( $LSDatabases -contains $db) )
{
It 'Has a Full Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Full) | Should Be $True
}
It 'Has a Diff Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Diff) | Should Be $True
}
} #
else
{
It 'Has a Full Folder' {
[System.IO.Directory]::Exists($Full) | Should Be $True
}
}#
} # End Check for db folders
}
and a similar thing for the files in the folders although this caused me some more issues with performance. I first used Get-ChildItem but in folders where a log backup is running every 15 minutes it soon became very slow. So I then decided to compare the create time of the folder with the last write time which was significantly quicker for directories with a number of files but then fell down when there was a single file in the directory so if the times match I revert back to Get-ChildItem.
If anyone has a better more performant option I would be interested in knowing. I used Øyvind Kallstad PowerShell Conference session Chasing the seconds Slides and Video and tried the methods in there with Measure-Command but this was the best I came up with

If($CheckForBackups -eq $true)
{
Context ' File Check For $db on $Server on $Share' {
$Fullcreate = [System.IO.Directory]::GetCreationTime($Full)
$FullWrite = [System.IO.Directory]::GetLastWriteTime($Full)
if($Fullcreate -eq $FullWrite)
{
It 'Has Files in the FULL folder for $db' {
Get-ChildItem $Full\*.bak | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
}
else
{
It 'Has Files in the FULL folder for $db' {
$FullCreate | Should BeLessThan $FullWrite
}
}
It 'Full File Folder was written to within the last 7 days' {
$Fullwrite |Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddDays(-7)
}
if($Db -notin ('master','msdb','model'))
{
$Diffcreate = [System.IO.Directory]::GetCreationTime($Diff)
$DiffWrite = [System.IO.Directory]::GetLastWriteTime($Diff)
if($Diffcreate -eq $DiffWrite)
{
It 'Has Files in the DIFF folder for $db' {
Get-ChildItem $Diff\*.bak | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
}
else
{
It 'Has Files in the DIFF folder for $db' {
$DiffCreate | Should BeLessThan $DiffWrite
}
}</div><div>It 'Diff File Folder was written to within the last 24 Hours' {
$Diffwrite |Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddHours(-24)
}
}
if($Db -notin ('master','msdb','model') -and ($Srv.Databases[$db].RecoveryModel -ne 'Simple') -and ( $LSDatabases -notcontains $db))
{
$Logcreate = [System.IO.Directory]::GetCreationTime($Log)
$LogWrite = [System.IO.Directory]::GetLastWriteTime($Log)
if($Logcreate -eq $LogWrite)
{
It 'Has Files in the LOG folder for $db' {
Get-ChildItem $Log\*.trn | Should Not BeNullOrEmpty
}
}
else
{
It 'Has Files in the LOG folder for $db' {
$LogCreate | Should BeLessThan $LogWrite
}
}
It 'Log File Folder was written to within the last 30 minutes' {
$Logwrite |Should BeGreaterThan (Get-Date).AddMinutes(-30)
}
}# Simple Recovery
}
}# Check for backups
You could just run the script you have just created from your check-list, hopefully this blog post can help you see that you  can do so.
But I like the message showing number of tests and successes and failures at the bottom and I want to use parameters in my script. I can do this like this

[CmdletBinding()]
## Pester Test to check OLA
Param(
$Instance,
$CheckForBackups,
$CheckForDBFolders,
$JobSuffix ,
$Share ,
[switch]$NoDatabaseRestoreCheck,
[switch]$DontCheckJobOutcome
)
and then call it using Invoke-Pester with the parameters like this

$Script = @{
Path = $Path;
Parameters = @{ Instance = Instance;
CheckForBackups = $true;
CheckForDBFolders = $true;
JobSuffix = 'BackupShare1';
Share = '\\Server1\BackupShare1';
NoDatabaseRestoreCheck= $true;
DontCheckJobOutcome = $true}
}
Invoke-Pester -Script $Script
but that’s a bit messy, hard to remember and won’t encourage people newer to Powershell to use it so I wrapped it in a function with some help and examples and put it in GitHub Test-OlaInstance.ps1 and Test-Ola. There is one thing to remember. You will need to add the path to Test-Ola.ps1 on Line 90 of Test-OlaInstance so that the script can find it
Once you have that you can call it for a single instance or a number of instances like so. Here I check for Folders and Backup files
$Servers =  'SQL2008Ser2008','SQL2012Ser08AG1','SQL2012Ser08AG2','SQL2014Ser12R2'
Test-OLAInstance -Instance $Servers -Share 'H:\' -CheckForBackups
and get  a nice result like this. In a little under 20 seconds I completed my checklist for 4 servers including checking if the files and folders exist for 61 databases 🙂 (The three failures were my Integrity Check jobs holding some test corrupt databases)
pester ola check.PNG
This gives me a nice and simple automated method of checking if Ola’s maintenance script has been correctly installed. I can use this for one server or many by passing in an array of servers (although they must use the same folder for backing up whether that is UNC or local) I can also add this to an automated build process to ensure that everything has been deployed correctly.
I hope you find it useful

DBA Database scripts are on Github

It started with a tweet from Dusty

Tweets

The second session I presented at the fantastic PowerShell Conference Europe was about using the DBA Database to automatically install DBA scripts like sp_Blitz, sp_AskBrent, sp_Blitzindex from Brent Ozar , Ola Hallengrens Maintenance Solution , Adam Mechanics sp_whoisactive , This fantastic script for logging the results from sp_whoisactive to a table , Extended events sessions and other goodies for the sanity of the DBA.

By making use of the dbo.InstanceList in my DBA database I am able to target instances, by SQL Version, OS Version, Environment, Data Centre, System, Client or any other variable I choose. An agent job that runs every night will automatically pick up the instances and the scripts that are marked as needing installing. This is great when people release updates to the above scripts allowing you to target the development environment and test before they get put onto live.

I talked to a lot of people in Hannover and they all suggested that I placed the scripts onto GitHub and after some how-to instructions from a few people (Thank you Luke) I spent the weekend updating and cleaning up the code and you can now find it on GitHub here

github

I have added the DBA Database project, the Powershell scripts and Agent Job creation scripts to call those scripts and everything else I use. Some of the DBA Scripts I use (and links to those you need to go and get yourself for licensing reasons) and the Power Bi files as well. I will be adding some more jobs that I use to gather other information soon.

Please go and have a look and see if it is of use to you. It is massively customisable and I have spoken to various people who have extended it in interesting ways so I look forward to hearing about what you do with it.

As always, questions and comments welcome

 

 

Backing up to URL container name – case is important

If you use SQL Backup to URL to backup your databases to Azure blob storage remember that for the container name case is important

So

will work but

will give an (400) Bad Request Error which may not be easy to diagnose

If you are using Ola Hallengrens jobs to perform your backup then your job step will look like this

Note the @ChangeBackupType = ‘Y’ parameter which is not created by default but I think is very useful. If you have just created a database and take log backups every 15 minutes but differential (or full) every night the log backup will fail until a full backup has been taken. This parameter will check if a log backup is possible and if not take a full backup meaning that you still can keep to your RTO/RPO requirements even for newly created databases

Populating My DBA Database for Power Bi with PowerShell – Databases

Following my post about using Power Bi with my DBA Database I have been asked if I would share the PowerShell scripts which I use to populate my database.

In this post I will show how to create the following report

db1

db2

Although you will find so many items of data that I expect that you will want to create different reports for your own requirements. You will also want to put the report onto PowerBi.com and explore the natural language querying as I show at the end of this post

You will find the latest version of my DBADatabase creation scripts and PowerShell scripts here.

The SQLInfo table is created using this code

CREATE TABLE [Info].[Databases](
	[DatabaseID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
	[InstanceID] [int] NOT NULL,
	[Name] [nvarchar](256) NULL,
	[DateAdded] [datetime2](7) NULL,
	[DateChecked] [datetime2](7) NULL,
	[AutoClose] [bit] NULL,
	[AutoCreateStatisticsEnabled] [bit] NULL,
	[AutoShrink] [bit] NULL,
	[AutoUpdateStatisticsEnabled] [bit] NULL,
	[AvailabilityDatabaseSynchronizationState] [nvarchar](16) NULL,
	[AvailabilityGroupName] [nvarchar](128) NULL,
	[CaseSensitive] [bit] NULL,
	[Collation] [nvarchar](30) NULL,
	[CompatibilityLevel] [nvarchar](15) NULL,
	[CreateDate] [datetime2](7) NULL,
	[DataSpaceUsageKB] [float] NULL,
	[EncryptionEnabled] [bit] NULL,
	[IndexSpaceUsageKB] [float] NULL,
	[IsAccessible] [bit] NULL,
	[IsFullTextEnabled] [bit] NULL,
	[IsMirroringEnabled] [bit] NULL,
	[IsParameterizationForced] [bit] NULL,
	[IsReadCommittedSnapshotOn] [bit] NULL,
	[IsSystemObject] [bit] NULL,
	[IsUpdateable] [bit] NULL,
	[LastBackupDate] [datetime2](7) NULL,
	[LastDifferentialBackupDate] [datetime2](7) NULL,
	[LastLogBackupDate] [datetime2](7) NULL,
	[Owner] [nvarchar](30) NULL,
	[PageVerify] [nvarchar](17) NULL,
	[ReadOnly] [bit] NULL,
	[RecoveryModel] [nvarchar](10) NULL,
	[ReplicationOptions] [nvarchar](40) NULL,
	[SizeMB] [float] NULL,
	[SnapshotIsolationState] [nvarchar](10) NULL,
	[SpaceAvailableKB] [float] NULL,
	[Status] [nvarchar](35) NULL,
	[TargetRecoveryTime] [int] NULL,
 CONSTRAINT [PK_Databases] PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED 
(
	[DatabaseID] ASC
)WITH (PAD_INDEX = OFF, STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = OFF, IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF, ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = ON, ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = ON) ON [PRIMARY]
) ON [PRIMARY]

GO

The Powershell script uses Jason Wasser @wasserja Write-Log function to write to a text file but I also enable some logging into a new event log by following the steps here http://blogs.technet.com/b/heyscriptingguy/archive/2013/02/01/use-powershell-to-create-and-to-use-a-new-event-log.aspx to create a log named SQLAutoScript with a source SQLAUTOSCRIPT

To run the script I simply need to add the values for

$CentralDBAServer = '' ## Add the address of the instance that holds the DBADatabase
$CentralDatabaseName = 'DBADatabase' 
$LogFile = "\DBADatabaseServerUpdate_" + $Date + ".log" ## Set Path to Log File

And the script will do the rest. Call the script from a PowerShell Job Step and schedule it to run at the frequency you wish, I gather the information every week. You can get the script from here or you can read on to see how it works and how to create the report and publish it to powerbi.com and query it with natural langauge

I create a function called Catch-Block to save keystrokes and put my commands inside a try catch to make the scripts as robust as possible. I won’t include the try catch in the examples below. I gather all of the server names from the InstanceList table and set the results to an array variable called $ServerNames holding the server name, instance name and port

 $Query = @"
 SELECT [ServerName]
      ,[InstanceName]
      ,[Port]
  FROM [DBADatabase].[dbo].[InstanceList]
  Where Inactive = 0 
    AND NotContactable = 0
"@
try{
$AlltheServers= Invoke-Sqlcmd -ServerInstance $CentralDBAServer -Database $CentralDatabaseName -Query $query
$ServerNames = $AlltheServers| Select ServerName,InstanceName,Port
}

I then loop through the array and create a $Connection variable for my SMO connection string and connect to the server

foreach ($ServerName in $ServerNames)
{
## $ServerName
 $InstanceName =  $ServerName|Select InstanceName -ExpandProperty InstanceName
 $Port = $ServerName| Select Port -ExpandProperty Port
$ServerName = $ServerName|Select ServerName -ExpandProperty ServerName 
 $Connection = $ServerName + '\' + $InstanceName + ',' + $Port

 try
 {
 $srv = New-Object ('Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server') $Connection

Even though I place the creation of the SMO server object in a try block you still need to an additional check to ensure that you can connect and populate the object as the code above creates an empty SMO Server object with the name property set to the $Connection variable if you can’t connect to that server and doesn’t error as you may expect
The way I have always validated an SMO Server object is to check the version property. There is no justifiable reason for choosing that property, you could choose any one but that’s the one I have always used. I use an if statement to do this ( This post about Snippets will show you the best way to learn PowerShell code) The reference I use for exiting a loop in the way that you want is this one In this case we use a continue to carry on iterating the loop

 if (!( $srv.version)){
 Catch-Block " Failed to Connect to $Connection"
 continue
 }

I then loop through the user databases

foreach($db in $srv.databases|Where-Object {$_.IsSystemObject -eq $false })
{
$Name = $db.Name
$Parent = $db.Parent.Name

To gather information on all databases just remove everything after the pipe symbol or if you wish to exclude certain databases from the collection gathering, maybe the database you keep your Change log table and DBA Team info in you can do that as well here

foreach($db in $srv.databases|Where-Object {$_.Name -ne 'EXCLUDENAME' })
{
$Name = $db.Name
$Parent = $db.Parent.Name

If you wish to view all of the different properties that you can gather information on in this way you can use this code to take a look. (This is something you should get used to doing when writing new Powershell scripts)

$Connection = 'SERVERNAMEHERE'
$srv = New-Object ('Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server') $Connection
 $srv.databases | Get-Member

An alternative method of doing this is to set a variable to a $db and then to select all of the properties so that you can see the values and identify the ones you want. Again this a good thing to do when exploring new objects

$db = $srv.databases['DBNAMEHERE'] 
$db| Select *

You can see from the screen shot below that there are 170 properties available to you on a SQL2014 instance. You can gather any or all of that information as long as you ensure that you have the columns with the correct data types in your table and that your script has the logic to deal with properties that do not exist although I have had less issue with this for the database object than the server object

db3

You can look for the property that you want by using the Get-Member cmdlet as shown above or use MSDN to find it starting from here or by GoogleBingDuckDuckGo ing “Powershell SMO” and the property you wish to find.

The rest of the script follows exactly the same pattern as the previous post by checking the SQL Info table for an entry for that instance and updating the table if it exists and inserting if it does not.

This is how I created the reports shown above.

Connect to the DBA Database and run these queries to gather the data for the report.

SELECT 
IL.ServerName
,IL.InstanceName
,IL.Location
,IL.Environment
,IL.Inactive
,IL.NotContactable
,D.[DatabaseID]
,D.[InstanceID]
,D.[Name]
,D.[DateAdded]
,D.[DateChecked]
,D.[AutoClose]
,D.[AutoCreateStatisticsEnabled]
,D.[AutoShrink]
,D.[AutoUpdateStatisticsEnabled]
,D.[AvailabilityDatabaseSynchronizationState]
,D.[AvailabilityGroupName]
,D.[CaseSensitive]
,D.[Collation]
,D.[CompatibilityLevel]
,D.[CreateDate]
,D.[DataSpaceUsageKB]
,D.[EncryptionEnabled]
,D.[IndexSpaceUsageKB]
,D.[IsAccessible]
,D.[IsFullTextEnabled]
,D.[IsMirroringEnabled]
,D.[IsParameterizationForced]
,D.[IsReadCommittedSnapshotOn]
,D.[IsUpdateable]
,D.[LastBackupDate]
,D.[LastDifferentialBackupDate]
,D.[LastLogBackupDate]
,D.[Owner]
,D.[PageVerify]
,D.[ReadOnly]
,D.[RecoveryModel]
,D.[ReplicationOptions]
,D.[SizeMB]
,D.[SnapshotIsolationState]
,D.[SpaceAvailableKB]
,D.[Status]
,D.[TargetRecoveryTime]
FROM [DBADatabase].[Info].[Databases] as D
JOIN [DBADatabase].[dbo].[InstanceList] as IL
ON IL.InstanceID =D.InstanceID

To get all the database and instance information and

SELECT C.ClientName
 ,[DatabaseID]
 ,[InstanceID]
 ,[Notes]
  FROM [DBADatabase].[dbo].[ClientDatabaseLookup] as CDL
  JOIN [DBADatabase].[dbo].[Clients] as C
  ON CDL.clientid = c.clientid

To get the client information. The client information needs to be manually added to the table as this (in general) needs a human bean to understand. When the script runs every night it will pick up new databases and I add a default value of “Not Entered” to the table which makes it easier to identify the databases that need this additional work. (This also means that as a Team Leader I can monitor that my team are doing this) It can also be added to any scripts which create new databases for deployment.

Then we need to create some measures and calculated columns for our report. I did this as I realised that I needed it when making the report rather than all up front.

I created two calculated columns for size for the databases one for Gb and one for Tb by clicking on the data icon on the left and then new measure

SizeGb = Query1[SizeMB]/1024
SizeTb = Query1[SizeGb]/1024

Some measures for count of Databases, Instances and Servers

Databases = COUNT(Query1[DatabaseID])
Instances = DISTINCTCOUNT(Query1[InstanceID])
Servers = DISTINCTCOUNT(Query1[ServerName])

I also wanted to be able to differentiate between ‘External’ and ‘Internal’ customers. So I created a calculated column for this value using a switch statement.

External = SWITCH(Clients[ClientName],"Not Entered", 0 , "Dev Team",0,"Mi Team",0,"DBA Team",0,"Finance Department",0,"HR",0,"Operations",0,"Payroll",0,"Test Team",0,"Systems Team",0,"Unknown",0,1)

I create a donut chart to show the size of the database in Gb by client (and no, my real clients are not rock bands 🙂 ) as shown below. I formatted the title, legend and background by clicking on the paintbrush in the visualisation pane. I would encourage you to investigate the options here.

db4
The other donut chart is number of clients per location (and those are SQL User group locations in the UK and my hometown Bolton)

db5

The rest of the visualisations on that report are cards and tables which I am sure that you can work out.

I created a map to show the location of the databases

db6

And after reading this post http://sqldusty.com/2015/08/03/power-bi-tip-use-the-treemap-chart-as-a-colorful-slicer/ by Dustin Ryan I created a colourful slicer for environment and the client and then added some other information. The important thing here is to pick the information that the person looking at the report needs to see. So if it is recovery model, compatibility level, collation, page verify setting, mirroring, replication, size and number of databases then this report is correct but I doubt that’s what you want 🙂

You can slice this report by location, client or environment. For example, I can easily see which clients have data in Exeter and the size and number of databases

db7

Or if Metallica ring me up I can quickly see that they have 4 databases, just under 69Gb of data in Exeter and it isn’t mirrored. You will notice that it is not easy to see the recovery model or the compatibility level. If you hover over the results you get a highlight figure which shows the data is filtered but it is not shown visually very well as there are over a thousand databases using full recovery model.

db8

If we are asked about the Integration environment we can see that it is hosted in Bolton, Manchester, Southampton and Exeter and comprises of 394 databases and 739 Gb of data. It is also easier to see the compatibility level and recovery model as the ratios are larger

db9

Once we have created the report in the way that we want we can then publish it to powerbi.com and share it with others if we wish. Publishing is as easy as pressing the publish button and entering your powerbi credentials but if you want your data to automatically refresh (and this is the point of the exercise to remove manual work) then you will need to install and configure the PowerBi gateway and schedule a refresh I will post about this later.

Once the report is published you can access it in the browser and create a dashboard by clicking the pin in the top right of a visualisation and a pop up will ask you which dashboard you wish to pin it to (Another recent update to Power Bi)

db10

Once you have a dashboard you can then perform some natural language question and answer on it. This can be quite interesting and not always quite what you (or your report readers) might expect but it is getting better all the time

db11

You have to remember to use the names of the columns correctly

db12

But once you have the query correct you can alter it by adding “as a VISUALISATION” and choose the visualisation

db13

db14

And once you have the visualisation you can pin it to the dashboard

I think you can see how useful it can be

db15

This doesn’t work quite as you expect

db16

But this does

db17

How about this (and yes it felt wrong to type!)

db18

And the auditors would love to be able to do this. (This is an old copy of the database in case The Eagles people are reading this – your database is backed up every 15 minutes)

db19

Or this for a DBA ( Yes, my obfuscation script database naming convention is a bit bland)

db20

Or the DBA team manager might choose this one

db21

The advantage that I cannot show via static pictures is that the data, visualisation and the suggestions alter in real time as you type

I hope that you have found this useful and that you can see the benefits and advantages of using a DBA Database and empowering people to use self-service to answer their own questions leaving the DBA time to do more important things like drinking coffee 🙂

As always if you have any questions or comments please feel free to post them on the blog.

I have written further posts about this

Using Power Bi with my DBA Database

Populating My DBA Database for Power Bi with PowerShell – Server Info

Populating My DBA Database for Power Bi with PowerShell – SQL Info

Populating My DBA Database for Power Bi with PowerShell – Databases

Power Bi, PowerShell and SQL Agent Jobs